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We add 's to singular nouns to show possession: We are having a party at John's house. Michael drove his friend's car. We add ' to plural nouns ending in -s: This is my parents' house. Those are ladies' shoes. But we use 's with irregular plural nouns: men women children people These are men's shoes. Children's clothes are very expensive. We can use a possessive instead of a full noun phrase to avoid repeating words: Is that John's car? No,...
We use quantifiers when we want to give someone information about the number of something: how much or how many. Sometimes we use a quantifier in the place of a determiner: Most children start school at the age of five. We ate some bread and butter. We saw lots of birds. Quantifiers with...
The interrogative determiners are which and what. which is a specific determiner Here are three books. Which book do you think is the most interesting? They have four boys. Which boy is the oldest? I can’t remember which house Janet lives in. Which restaurant did you go to? what is a general determiner What food do you like? I don’t know what job she...
The definite article the is the most frequent word in English. We use the definite article in front of a noun when we believe the listener/reader knows exactly what we are referring to: because there is only one: The Pope is visiting Russia. The moon is very bright tonight. Who is the president...
We use the indefinite article, a/an, with singular nouns when the listener/reader does not know exactly which one we are referring to: Police are searching for a 14-year-old girl. We also use it to show that the person or thing is one of a group: She is a pupil at London Road School. Police...
Specific and general determiners Level: beginner Determiners are words which come at the beginning of noun phrases. They tell us whether a noun phrase is specific or general. Specific determiners The specific determiners are: the definite article: the possessives: my, your, his, her, its, our, their, whose demonstratives: this, that, these, those We use...
Level: beginner The relative pronouns are: Subject Object Possessive who who/whom whose which which whose that that - We use relative pronouns to introduce relative clauses. Relative clauses tell us more about people and things: Lord Thompson, who is 76, has just retired. This is the house which Jack built. Marie Curie is the woman that discovered radium. We use: who and whom for people which for things ...
Level: beginner Some of the indefinite pronouns in English are: anybody everybody nobody somebody anyone everyone no one someone anything everything nothing something We use indefinite pronouns to refer to people or things without saying exactly who or what they are. We use pronouns ending in -body or -one for people, and pronouns ending in -thing for things: Everybody enjoyed the...
Level: intermediate We use the reciprocal pronouns each other and one another when two or more people do the same thing. Peter and Mary helped each other. = Peter helped Mary and Mary helped Peter. We sent one another Christmas cards. = We sent them a Christmas card and they sent us a...
The reflexive pronouns are: singular: myself yourself himself herself itself plural: ourselves yourselves themselves We use a reflexive pronoun as a direct object when the object is the same as the subject of the verb: I fell over and hurt myself. Be careful with that knife. You might cut yourself. We can use a reflexive pronoun as direct object with most transitive verbs,...