Direct Indirect Speech – प्रत्यक्ष परोक्ष वाक्य – Learn English Speaking – इंग्लिश ग्रामर हिंदी मे



Direct Indirect Speech – प्रत्यक्ष परोक्ष वाक्य – Learn English Speaking – इंग्लिश ग्रामर हिंदी मे सीखिए. https://www.successcds.net/learn-english/direct-and-indirect-speech-definition-rules-examples-exercises.html
Learn English speaking and translation through Hindi. Direct and indirect speech प्रत्यक्ष / परोक्ष वाक्य

What is direct speech?
किसी द्वारा बोले गए वाक्य को ज्यों का त्यों लिख देना या बताना प्रत्यक्ष वाक्य (या direct speech) कहलाता है।
अध्यापिका ने विद्यार्थियों से कहा, “तुम जा सकते हो।”
The teacher said to the students, “You can go.”

What is indirect speech?
किसी द्वारा बोले गए शब्दों को अपने शब्दों में कहना परोक्ष वाक्य (या indirect speech) कहलाता है।
अध्यापिका ने विद्यार्थियों से कहा कि वे जा सकते थे।
The teacher said to the students that they could go.
प्रत्यक्ष / परोक्ष वाक्यों के दो भाग होते हैं जो की अपने में सम्पूर्ण वाक्य हैं।

Both direct and indirect speech has two parts which are complete sentences in themselves
1. Reported verb
2. Reported speech
पहला भाग यह बताता है कि किस व्यक्ति ने किस व्यक्ति से बात कही।
Reporting verb – Who said to whom.
अध्यापिका ने विद्यार्थियों से कहा, “तुम जा सकते हो।”
The teacher said to the students, “You can go.”
दुसरे भाग में कही गई बात बताई जाती है जो प्रत्यक्ष वाक्य में “_____” में आती है।
Reported speech – Exact words spoken, put within inverted commas “_______”.
अध्यापिका ने विद्यार्थियों से कहा, “तुम जा सकते हो।”
The teacher said to the students, “You can go.”
हम परोक्ष वाक्य में ‘कि’ (संयोजक) का प्रयोग करते हैं।
Indirect speech – Conjunction ‘that’, ‘if’, ‘whether’, ‘to’ is used to join the two sentences.
अध्यापिका ने कहा, “तुम जा सकते हो।”
The teacher said, “You can go.”
अध्यापिका ने कहा कि हम जा सकते थे।
The teacher said that we could go.

Rules when we convert direct speech into indirect speech
1. Rules for changing the pronoun
Rule 1: When the pronoun in Reporting speech is in first person, it changes according to the subject of the Reporting verb.
राम ने मुझे कहा, “मैं जा रहा हूँ।”
राम ने मुझे कहा कि वो जा रहा था।
Ram said to me, “I am going.”
Ram said to me that he was going.

तुमने राधा से कहा, “मैं पढ़ रहा हूँ। ”
तुमने राधा से कहा कि तुम पढ़ रहे थे।
You said to Radha, “I am studying.”
You said to Radha that you were studying.

उनहोंने मुझे कहा, “हम खेल रहे हैं।”
उनहोंने मुझे कहा कि वे खेल रहे थे।
They said to me, “We are playing.”
They said to me that they were playing.

Rule 2: When the pronoun in Reporting speech is in second person, it changes according to the object of the Reporting verb.
मैंने राम से कहा ,”तुम नालायक हो।”
मैंने राम से कहा कि वो नालायक है।
I said to Ram, “You are unworthy.”
I said to Ram that he was unworthy.

He had said to me, “Does he play?”
He had asked me that did he play?

He had said to me, “Raj is fat.”
He had said to me that Raj was fat.

He had said to me, “I am fat.”
He had said to me that he was fat.

He had said to me, “We are fat.”
He had said to me that we were fat.

He had said to me, “I have a camera.”
He had said to me that he had a camera.

He had said to me, “The boy has a camera.”
He had said to me that the boy had a camera.
Practice sentences
उसने मुझे कहा, “मेरा भाई हर सुबह छः बजे उठता है।“
He told me, “My brother wakes up at six every morning.
उसने मुझे कहा कि उसका भाई हर सुबह छः बजे उठता है।
He told me that his brother woke up at six every morning.
अध्यापक ने लड़कों से कहा, “पृथ्वी सूरज के चारों ओर घूमती है। “
Teacher told the boys, “The Earth revolves around the Sun.”
अध्यापक ने लड़कों से कहा कि पृथ्वी सूरज के चारों ओर घूमती है।
Teacher told the boys that the Earth revolves around the Sun.
तुम्हें मुझे कहा, “मैं काम कर रहा हूँ।“
You said to me, “I am working.”
तुमने मुझे कहा कि तुम काम कर रहे थे।
You said to me that you were working.
मैंने सीता को कहा, “मैं आज नहीं आऊंगी। “
I said to Sita, “I will not come today.”
मैंने सीता को कहा कि मैं उस दिन नहीं आऊंगी।
I said to Sita that I would not be coming today.
उनहोंने हमसे कहा, “आप अच्छे हैं ।”
They told us, “You are good.”
उनहोंने हमसे कहा की अच्छे थे।
They told us that we were good.
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