Learning English Grammar:Sentences(Part8)-Compound Sentences



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Sentences
A sentence is a group of words that you use to communicate your ideas. Every sentence is formed from one or more clauses and expresses a complete thought. There are four types of sentences in English:
1. Simple sentences
– My parents go to the USA twice a year.
-Go there! -What are you doing now?
What a beautiful girl!
2, Compound sentences
– Men are less cautious than women, so more men die in accidents.
-My students come to class on time, but their speaking skills are not good.
3. Complex sentences
-When I arrive home, I’ll give you a ring.
-If you have a headache you should take an aspirin.
4. Compound-complex sentences
-I usually use a pick whenever I play the guitar, or I just use my fingers.
I. Simple Sentences
A simple sentence contains a single independent clause.
There are four types of simple sentences:
a. Declarative sentences
A declarative sentence is the sentence that makes a statement.
E,g. – I enjoy playing tennis on Sundays.
– Sam and I do homework after dinner.
-We lave and work in the USA.
-Janet or Alex works for me.
-John either stays with me or goes home at weekends.
***Form.
Sub+V+(Obj)
Sub+and/or+Sub+V+(Obj)
Sub+V+and/or+V+(Obj)
b. Imperative Sentences
An imperative sentence gives commands or makes requests.
E.g. Come back!
– Do be reasonable.
– Come and have a cup of tea.
-Sit up straight!
-Mind your own business!
***Form***
-ϴ + Base form + Complement.
-ϴ + Base form + and + Base form + complement.
C. Interrogative sentences
An interrogative sentence is the sentence that asks questions.
E.g. Are you a teacher?
-Does Sam come from Japan?
– Did they arrive home late?
– Have you been to the UK?
– What book is she reading?
– Where do you live?
– How does she go to school?
– Who loves you?
– What are you doing?
***Form***
– Be + Sub +….?
– Auxiliary + Sub + V +….?
– W.h. + V +….?
– W.h. +(n) + auxiliary + Sub + V +….?
c. Exclamatory sentences
An exclamatory sentence is the sentence in the form of exclamations.
– What a beautiful girl!
– What pretty shoes!
– What a fool I’ve been!
– How marvelous!
– How fast he is driving!
– You silly boy!
– Isn’t that a beautiful flower!
– Will you stop that noise!
***Form***
-What + (a/an) + adj +n!
– What + (a/an) +n + s + V!
– How + adj/adv + !
– How + adj/adv + S + V!
2. Compound sentences
Compound sentences are two or more independent clauses joined together. There are three ways to join the clauses.
a. Compound sentences with coordinators (FANBOYS)
– Women live longer than men, for they take better care of their health.
– Women follow more healthful diets, and they go to doctors more often.
– Men are less cautious than women, so more men die in accidents.
***Form***
Independent Clause, FANBOYS + Independent Clause
I C, FANBOYS + I C.
***Note:
FANBOYS = F=for, A=and, N=nor, B= but, O= or, Y= yet, S= so
b. Compound sentences with Conjunctive Adverbs
E.g. Students must take final exams; otherwise, they will receive a grade of incomplete.
– John works very hard on his courses. Nevertheless, he failed the exams.
– Many community colleges don’t have dormitories. They provide housing referral seveices.
***Form:
Independent Clause; Conjunctive Adverbs, Independent Clause
I C. Conjunctive Adverbs, I C.
c. Compound sentences with Semicolons
E.g. My older brother studies law; my younger brother studies medicine.
– I enjoy tennis; I hate golf.
-Poland was the first European country to turn away from communism; others soon followed.
***Form***
Independent Clause; Independent Clause

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