Learning English Grammars:Tree Diagrams (Part 5)



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Tree Diagrams
A tree diagram is a thing that has a branching structure resembling that of a tree – a diagram with a structure of branching connecting lines, representing different processes and relationships.
Before you draw a tree diagram of each sentence, you have to analyze the element of the sentence.
1. Wh. pronouns: Subjects
Who works with you every day?
-who is a noun phrase functioning as a subject of verb.
– works is a main verb
– with is Preposition, you is Noun Phrase: Object of Preposition, so with you is prepositional Phrase functioning as Adverb Phrase
– every day is adverb of time.
Wh. pronouns: Object of Transitive Verb
– Who do you love?
– Who is Noun Phrase: Object of transitive verb.
– do is Auxiliary verb
– you is Noun Phrase : Subject
– love is Transitive verb
2. Wh pronouns: Objects of Preposition
-With whom do your parents live?
– with is preposition
– whom is Noun phrase: object of preposition
– do is auxiliary verb
– your is Determiner, parents is Noun phrase, so they become Prepositional Phrase: Adverbial Phrase
– live is Main Verb
Then we can draw a tree diagram like this.
3. Wh-determiners: Nouns (Subject and Object)
E.g. What books were sold for $100 yesterday?
– What is determiner, books is noun, so what books is Noun Phrase: Subject
– Were sold for $100 yesterday is Verb Phrase Predicate
– were is Auxiliary Verb, sold is Main verb, so were sold is Verb Phrase or simple predicate
– for is Preposition, $100 is Noun Phrase, so for $100 is Prepositional Phrase: adverb of purpose
– Yesterday is adverb of time.
E.g. Whose pen are you using?
– Whose is Determiner, pen is noun, so Whose pen is Noun Phrase: Object of Transitive Verb (using)
– are is Auxiliary Verb, using is Main Verb, so are using is Verb Phrase or Simple predicate
– You is Noun Phrase: Subject
– E.g. How much water do you drink per day?
– How much is Determiner, water is Noun, so how much water is Noun Phrase: Object of Drink
– Do is auxiliary verb, drink is Main Verb, so it is Verb Phrase
– You is Noun Phrase: Subject
– per day is Adverb of Time
4. Wh-adverbs
-E.g. How do your students go to school every day?
– How is adverb
– Do is auxiliary verb, go Main verb, so do..go is Verb phrase
– To is preposition, school is Noun Phrase is object of preposition, so to school is prepositional phrase functioning as Adjective
– every day is adverb of time.
E.g When did you marry a woman with three kids.
– When is adverb
– Did is auxiliary verb, marry is Main verb, so di….marry is Verb Phrase or simple predicate.
– A is Determiner, woman is Noun: head noun, with is preposition, three is determiner, kids is Noun, tree kids is Noun Phrase Object of Preposition, with three kids is prepositional phrase is adjective phrase., so a woman with three kids is Noun Phrase: Object

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