PARTICIPLES

What is a participle?

A participle is a word formed from a verb that can function as part of a verb phrase.

For example:-

has been

Or independently as an adjective.

For example:-

working woman
hot water bottle

There are three forms of participle: The present participle, the past participle and the perfect participle.

!Note – We use past participles (-ed) to describe how we feel. We use present participles [-ing] to describe what caused the feelings.

PAST PARTICIPLES

What is a past participle?

A past participle indicates past or completed action or time. It is often called the ‘ed’ form as it is formed by adding d or ed, to the base form of regular verbs, however it is also formed in various other ways for irregular verbs.

It can be used to form a verb phrase as part of the present perfect tense.

For example:-

I have learnt English. (Learnt is part of the verb phrase ‘have learnt’)

It can be used to form the passive voice.

For example:-

Her hair was well brushed.

It can also be used as an adjective.

For example:-

As an adjective: He had a broken arm. (Broken is used here as an adjective.)

Here is a comprehensive list of irregular verbs.

PERFECT PARTICIPLES

What is the perfect participle?

The perfect participle indicates completed action. You form the perfect participle by putting the present participle having in front of the past participle.

For example:-

having done, having finished, having read, having spoken

It can be used to form the passive voice.

For example:-

Having improved her English Pia’s promotion prospects were much better.

Here is a comprehensive list of irregular verbs

PRESENT PARTICIPLES

What is the present participle?

The present participle is a participle that ends in ing. It can be used with the auxilliary verb ‘to be’ to form the continuous tense. It always takes the ‘ing’ form of the verb, even irregular verbs have an ‘…ing’ form, in fact virtually all English words that end with ‘ing’ are present participles.

For example:-

I am learning English. (Learning is part of the continuous verb phrase ‘am learning’)

We were running through the woods. (Running is part of the continuous verb phrase ‘were running’ ).

It can also be used as an adjective.

For example:-

As an adjective: I am a working woman. (Working is used here as an adjective.)

!Note :-

The present participle can also be used as a noun denoting the action of a verb a gerund. But remember the present participle can be used as a verb or an adjective whilst the gerund is used as a noun.

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